Energy Load Profiles


The objective is to create the half hour Load Profiles used in the UK electricity settlement process for the settlement of the UK non-half hourly market – this represents about 50% of the UK’s electricity use. A Load Profile is created for each Profile Class


A Load Profile represents the pattern of electricity usage by day and by year for the average customer in each one of the eight Profile Classes.

The above is an example of a Load Profile for the average Profile Class 1 (domestic unrestricted) customer in a typical winter weekday.

We create Profiles (daily, seasonal, yearly, per day type, etc.) for each of the eight Profile Classes by randomly selecting sites and installing half-hourly meters at these sites or getting half-hourly consumption data directly from Suppliers. These samples are designed to provide Profiles that are representative of all meters in each Profile Class.

Profile Classes 1 and 2 are for domestic premises and Profile Classes 3 to 8 are for non-domestic premises. The eight generic Profile Classes were chosen as they represented large populations of similar customers. Below is a detailed description of these:

  • Profile Class 1 – Domestic Unrestricted Customers
  • Profile Class 2 – Domestic Economy 7 Customers
  • Profile Class 3 – Non-Domestic Unrestricted Customers
  • Profile Class 4 – Non-Domestic Economy 7 Customers
  • Profile Class 5 – Non-Domestic Maximum Demand Customers with a Peak Load Factor of less than 20%
  • Profile Class 6 – Non-Domestic Maximum Demand Customers with a Peak Load Factor between 20% and 30%
  • Profile Class 7 – Non-Domestic Maximum Demand Customers with a Peak Load Factor between 30% and 40%
  • Profile Class 8 – Non-Domestic Maximum Demand Customers with a Peak Load Factor over 40%

Customers in Profile Classes 5 to 8 are described as Maximum Demand (MD) customers. This refers to customers whose Metering System has a register that gives the maximum demand for a given period. A Peak Load Factor (LF) is the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of  consumption (in kWh) during a given period to the number of kWh that would have been supplied had the maximum demand been maintained throughout that period.

Data used in Profiling

Demand data: The data collected from the samples is half-hourly consumption data (in kW) called Group Average Demands. From these, consumption data (in kWh) can be easily derived.

Temperature and sunset data: Additionally, the Profile Administrator uses temperature data from each GSP Group, sunset data from a Sunset Provider and ‘dummy’ variables declaring the weekday type.


Regression coefficients: The Profile Administrator uses regression coefficients that are plugged in the regression model along with the above inputs to calculate an estimate of demand on a given half-hourly period.

Profile Coefficients: The Supplier Volume Allocation Agent (SVAA) uses the out-turn temperature data to calculate Daily Profile Coefficients. Period Profile Class Coefficients (for every Settlement period) are also produced as an output.

Benefits of using MAP

MAP is actually not used at all for this since there is a bespoke application created for this. However, we have, in the past tested out the principles behind the system and know that we could generate the values if there was merit in doing so.